Because there are different hernia types, there can be different symptoms associated with them, including a bulge, pain or discomfort or gastroesophageal reflux. Some causes of hernias can be a congenital defect present at birth or any type of pressure placed in a weakened area of abdominal muscle or tissue through factors, such as a chronic cough, obesity, constipation, pregnancy, lifting heavy objects and fluid buildup in the abdominal cavity, states Healthline.
A hernia is a weakened area of the muscle or fascia of the abdominal wall through which part of the intestines or an organ can protrude through it. This can lead to a bulge at the hernia site. Because there are different hernia types, such as inguinal, hiatal, incisional and umbilical hernias, the bulge can occur in different areas.
An inguinal hernia occurs in the groin area. A symptom of this hernia type is the protrusion of either part of the intestines or bladder through a weakened spot in the abdominal wall or inguinal canal, notes WebMD. With an inguinal hernia, a bulge and pain may be present. Activities, such as lifting heavy objects, a persistent cough or straining, can place pressure on a weakened spot in the abdomen.
A hiatal hernia develops when a region of the stomach pushes up through the hiatus of the diaphragm and into the chest area. A hiatal hernia can cause the symptom of gastroesophageal reflux (GERD), states MedicineNet. An umbilical hernia occurs near the navel area and may be present in some newborns, while an incisional hernia happens when part of the intestines squeeze through an old surgery site.