During hysterectomy surgery, a woman's uterus is completely or partially removed, according to WebMD. The surgeon may remove only the top of the uterus and leave the neck, or cervix. Both the cervix and the uterus proper may be removed.
The uterus, some surrounding tissue, the cervix and part of the vagina may also be removed, says WebMD. This procedure is usually done if there is a malignancy. Sometimes, the woman's ovaries are removed as well.
Most hysterectomies are open procedures, claims WebMD. The surgeon makes an incision in the woman's abdomen, then performs the hysterectomy. Another type of hysterectomy is the MIP, or minimally invasive procedure hysterectomy. In one kind, the surgeon makes an incision in the vagina and pulls out the uterus through this incision. The benefit of this type of surgery is that it leaves no scar.
An MIP hysterectomy can also be performed laparoscopically, says WebMD. The surgeon makes a very small cut or series of very small cuts in the abdomen. He then removes the uterus with the aid of a tiny camera and a video monitor. The laparoscope can also be used vaginally or can be robot assisted. The advantages of an MIP hysterectomy include a shorter stay in the hospital, a shorter recovery time and a reduced risk of infection.