Fallopian tubes are crucial for fertility and reproduction, explains Stanford Hospital & Clinics. Sperm travel into the Fallopian tubes to fertilize the egg, and the fertilized egg then travels along the Fallopian tube before it becomes implanted in the uterus and develops into a fetus, says Stanford Hospital & Clinics.
The Fallopian tubes are specially adapted to transporting both sperm and fertilized eggs, says the Encyclopedia Britannica. Each fallopian tube is lined with mucosal membranes and muscles, and the mucosal membranes are made up of several nutrients, including calcium, sodium, glucose and lactic acid. According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, these nutrients keep the sperm and egg alive on the journey through the Fallopian tubes and contribute to the fertilized egg's development. The muscles of the Fallopian tube catch and guide the egg from the ovary to the uterus.
Problems with the Fallopian tubes can result in fertility issues and serious health problems, says Healthline. Some women experience ectopic pregnancies, where the fertilized eggs implants itself in the Fallopian tube instead of the uterus. Ectopic pregnancies are never viable and cannot be carried to term, according to Healthline. In some cases, ectopic pregnancy results in the removal of the Fallopian tube, while in extreme cases, an ectopic pregnancy causes fatal blood loss to the mother, says Healthline.