Foods to avoid on a kidney diet include high-potassium foods, such as avocados, bananas, artichokes, kale and beans, according to the American Kidney Fund. Patients with chronic kidney disease should also avoid high-phosphorus foods, including bran cereals, oatmeal, whole-grain bread, nuts and dark sodas.
A kidney-friendly diet reduces the intake of potassium and phosphorus to prevent the accumulation of waste in the blood of patients with kidney disease, thus preventing other health problems, explains the American Kidney Fund. Recommended lower-potassium foods include apples, cauliflower, white breads and beef. Corn, rice cereals and cream of wheat are good sources of phosphorus.
Doctors typically advise patients with kidney disease to minimize their protein consumption or change their food sources because a high-protein diet can lead to more kidney damage, says the American Kidney Fund. Fruits, vegetables, breads and rice are lower-protein foods, whereas eggs, fish, poultry and meat are higher-protein foods. Patients should also limit their sodium intake, as excessive sodium can lead to swelling and blood pressure increase, which cause further kidney damage. High-sodium foods to avoid include pickled foods, canned soups, frozen dinners and processed meats.
Damaged kidneys find it hard to eliminate excess fluid, which is why patients with kidney disease must limit their fluid intake, notes the American Kidney Fund. They should also avoid foods with lots of water, especially ice cream, gelatin and soups.