Early signs of kidney problems are protein in the urine and high levels of creatinine in the blood, which is calculated according to age, sex and race, notes the National Kidney Foundation. The test for creatinine levels calculates the glomerular filtration rate, which tells how much function the kidneys have.
Early stage kidney problems often have no symptoms until kidney disease is very advanced, according to MedlinePlus. Certain health factors, such as diabetes, heart disease and high blood pressure, put people at a higher risk for developing kidney disease. Kidney disease also runs in families. Anyone who has one or more of these risk factors can get tested as early detection provides the best results in treating kidney disease.