Fibroids are removed from the uterus by procedures such as focused ultrasound surgery, uterine artery embolization, myolysis or cryomyolysis, and laparoscopic or hysteroscopic myomectomy, according to the Mayo Clinic. They can also be removed via endometrial ablation, abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy.
Focused ultrasound surgery is a noninvasive procedure in which the fibroids are destroyed by heat produced by soundwaves, according to the Mayo Clinic. In uterine artery embolization, the fibroids are destroyed when their blood supply is interrupted by embolic agents. Myolysis, a seldom used technique, removes fibroids through lasers or electrical current, while cryomyolysis destroys the fibroids through freezing.
Laparoscopic myomectomy can be used if the patient does not have too many fibroids and they are small, says the Mayo Clinic. Miniaturized instruments and a tiny camera are inserted into the abdomen to help the surgeon remove the fibroids. The surgery can also be robot assisted, which makes it more accurate.
If the fibroids are inside the uterus, they can be removed through the vagina in a hysteroscopic myomectomy, says the Mayo Clinic. Fibroids can also be destroyed by a specialized instrument that also destroys the lining of the uterus through the application of heat. Abdominal myomectomy uses open surgery to remove large and deep fibroids. Hysterectomy removes the uterus altogether.