Factors that can cause blood in urine, or hematuria, other than a UTI include enlarged prostate, kidney disease, kidney stones and cancer, states Healthline. In rare cases, strenuous exercise and blood disorders, such as hemophilia, Alport syndrome and sickle cell anemia can cause hematuria.
An enlarging prostate gland may compress the urethra and partially block urine flow, causing a persistent need to urinate, difficulty urinating and blood in the urine, reports Mayo Clinic. Stones in the kidneys or bladder may also form from the minerals in the urine, causing a blockage that can result in pain and hematuria, explains Healthline.
Inflammation of the filtering system of the kidneys due to a condition such as glomerulonephritis can cause microscopic urinary bleeding, notes Mayo Clinic. Triggers of glomerulonephritis include viral or strep infections; immune problems, such as IgA nephropathy; and vasculitis, which is a blood vessel disease. Advanced bladder, kidney or prostate cancers can also cause blood in the urine, as can an injury to the kidneys from an accident.
As of 2015, it is not clear why strenuous exercise causes blood in urine, but suggestions include the breakdown of red blood cells, dehydration or trauma to the bladder, states Mayo Clinic. The risk of hematuria increases with a family history of kidney disease and medications such as penicillin and aspirin. This condition is more common in men older than 50.