Factors that increase the risk of developing ductal carcinoma in situ include aging, personal history of breast disease, family history of breast cancer, having a first pregnancy after 30 and undergoing hormone replacement therapy following menopause, according to Mayo Clinic. Other factors that increase the risk include genetic mutations and obesity.
In most cases, ductal carcinoma in situ does not cause any symptoms nor have any signs, explains Mayo Clinic. However, in some cases, the condition may appear as a lump in the breast or produce bloody discharge from the nipple. Most women realize ductal carcinoma in situ is a possibility after receiving a mammogram. The condition appears as small clusters of irregular sizes and shapes.
People who experience change in the breasts, such as lumps, puckers in the skin or nipple discharge, should contact a doctor, states Mayo Clinic. Doctors recommend annual breast cancer screenings for women over 40, and at-risk individuals sometimes require more frequent screening. Doctors can usually treat patients with ductal carcinoma in situ successfully with a lumpectomy, though radiation is sometimes part of the treatment plan. In other cases, a mastectomy may be necessary, especially if the condition affects a large area or multiple areas, or if the individual is not a candidate for radiation.