According to MedicineNet.com, eye doctors are called ophthalmologists or optometrists. Ophthalmologists complete four years of pre-med, four years of med school, one year of internship and three years of specialized care. Optometrists complete pre-professional undergraduate education and four years of professional education, but do not attend medical school.
Medicine Net explains that ophthalmologists are qualified to deliver total eye care including vision services, eye examinations, medical and surgical eye care, diagnosis and treatment of disease, and visual complications caused by other conditions. Optometrists, however, do not perform eye surgery and are not trained to care for and manage all diseases.