Eye diseases that can cause permanent deterioration in vision include iritis, glaucoma, cataracts, band keratopathy and macular degeneration, according to Mayo Clinic, the National Eye Institute, the Journal of Korean Medical Science and the American Macular Degeneration Foundation. Iritis is an inflammation of the colored part of the eye, according to Mayo Clinic. People who suspect they have iritis need to see a physician quickly to avoid vision-robbing complications.
Glaucoma is usually caused by increased pressure inside the eye, according to the National Eye Institute. This damages the optic nerve and leads to loss of vision. The early symptoms of open angle glaucoma are silent, which is why it is important to have regular eye exams.
Cataracts happen when the lens of the eye is clouded over, according to the National Eye Institute. Fortunately, cataracts can be removed using laser surgery. This is often an outpatient procedure, which means the patient can go home soon after the operation. The clouded lens is replaced by a prosthetic, intraocular lens.
Band keratopathy happens when calcium is deposited on the cornea, according to the Journal of Korean Medical Science. It is a complication of such eye diseases as uveitis and dry eye syndrome and is even a complication of kidney disease. Macular degeneration happens when the macula, the center of the retina, starts to deteriorate and interfere with central vision, says the American Macular Degeneration Foundation.