Precancerous cells, also called premalignant cells, are abnormal cells that have the potential to become cancerous, according to About.com. A precancerous cell is not destined to progress to cancer and can even return to a normal cell in the future.
A:The American Cancer Society states that early signs of throat cancer include hoarseness of voice, a sore throat, pain or trouble swallowing, and a lump on the neck. The early signs depend on the location of the cancer. For instance, if the cancer starts on the vocal cords, then hoarseness of voice is an early sign. If it starts above the vocal cords, hoarseness comes later.
A:Cancer shows up on certain types of medical X-rays, making it an essential tool in detecting cancer, according to Cancer Research UK. X-ray radiation poses some health risks, but the potential diagnostic and preventive benefits typically outweigh the risks of the radiation.
A:According to MedlinePlus, lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, a key part of the immune system. There are numerous different types of lymphoma, but the majority of lymphomas are classified as non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
A:Lymphoma is both treatable and curable, depending on the specific stage and cancer type, according to the American Society of Hematology. Lymphoma is divided into two categories, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is highly curable.
A:During a mammogram, a medical technician may discover that a patient has heterogeneously dense breasts. This medical term refers to extremely dense glandular tissue in the breast area. Dr. Margaret Polaneczky explains that, under this classification, the breast composition measures between 51 - 75 percent glandular. Large amounts of breast tissue compromise a mammogram test, and make it difficult to detect cancer, according to breast cancer expert, Dr. Stacey Vitiello.
A:The main signs and symptoms of lymphoma include painless swelling in lymph nodes found in the groin, neck or under the arms, night sweats, chills, fever, and unexplained weight loss, according to the Mayo Clinic. Other symptoms are appetite loss, increased lymph node pain after drinking and enhanced sensitivity to alcohol, constant fatigue, and itching.
A:Symptoms of prostate cancer include trouble urinating, decreased strength in the urine stream, blood in the urine or semen, general pain in the back and lower body, including the pelvic region, bone pain and erectile dysfunction, according to the Mayo Clinic. WebMD also lists the leaking of urine when laughing or coughing and the inability to urinate while standing up as additional symptoms.
A:Although lung cancer kills more people each year, pancreatic cancer is considered the deadliest type of cancer based on its general prognosis. Only five percent of people diagnosed with pancreatic cancer live as long as five years following their diagnosis.
A:Metastatic cancer is a type of cancer that has spread from the original point of cancer to another place in the body, according to the National Cancer Institute at the National Institutes of Health. Metastasis occurs when cancer cells spread to other parts of the body and form cancerous tumors.
A:According to the Cancer Institute of New South Wales, stage 4 cancer is the most severe stage of cancer and indicates distant spread. At this stage, cancerous cells are able to travel the body via blood vessels, which enables them to spread to any body part.
A:Precancerous cells, also called premalignant cells, are abnormal cells that have the potential to become cancerous, according to About.com. A precancerous cell is not destined to progress to cancer and can even return to a normal cell in the future.
A:The American Cancer Society notes that fatigue is a common side effect of radiation treatment. Fatigue is defined as feeling tired all the time, even after resting. A number of factors can lead to fatigue, including low red blood cell count, pain, poor nutrition, stress and chemotherapy drugs.
A:Common symptoms of leukemia in children include fatigue or pale skin, infections and fever, easy bleeding or bruising, extreme weakness, shortness of breath, and coughing, according to WebMD. Other symptoms may include bone or joint pain, swelling in the abdomen, swelling above the collarbone, loss of appetite, weight loss, headaches, seizure, balance problems or abnormal vision.
A:The progression of prostate cancer is divided into four distinct stages; by the fourth stage the cancer will have spread to other parts of the body. In this final stage, the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10, and the cancer may have spread to nearby tissue such as the rectum, bladder or pelvic wall. It may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes, and often spreads to the bones.
A:Mitosis is the process via which cells divide, producing copies of themselves. Cancer is essentially mitosis that is out of control. Cancer cells do not operate in the same way as other cells in the system they occupy, so they replicate and damage surrounding tissues.
A:According to the National Cancer Institute, during the final stages of lung cancer, a patient suffers myoclonus, dyspnea, fatigue, cough, rattle, delirium and fever. A study of 200 cancer patients revealed that noisy breathing, pain and urinary dysfunction were the most frequent symptoms during the last 48 hours of life.
A:Carcinoma cancers affect cell development in skin tissue and tissue-lined organs, such as kidneys, while sarcomas are found in bones, nerves, blood vessels and connective tissues, according to WebMD. Carcinoma triggers abnormal cell growth in some of the body's most essential organs and often spreads rapidly, so cases are frequently diagnosed. Sarcoma is very rare, and the most common form only causes approximately one out of 100 adult cancer cases.
A:The National Cancer Institute explains that Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes. Rare Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed by the presence of lymphocyte-predominant cells.
A:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a form of cancer that starts in the lymphocytes, which are cells of the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes exist in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues and are part of the body’s immune system, according to the American Cancer Society.
A:According to Mayo Clinic, a PET scan is an imaging test that helps determine how tissues and organs in the body are functioning. Short for positron emission topography, a PET scan uses a radioactive drug tracer to show areas of the body that have unusually high levels of chemical activity, which typically relates to a disease or disorder. These areas show up as bright spots on a PET scan.