Precancerous cells, also called premalignant cells, are abnormal cells that have the potential to become cancerous, according to About.com. A precancerous cell is not destined to progress to cancer and can even return to a normal cell in the future.
A:Tanning can cause skin cancer, as it represents damage to the skin at the cellular level, according to the Skin Cancer Foundation. Tanning is caused by the reaction of harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays with melanin, a hormone in the skin that regulates color.
A:Lymphoma is both treatable and curable, depending on the specific stage and cancer type, according to the American Society of Hematology. Lymphoma is divided into two categories, Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is highly curable.
A:According to MedlinePlus, lymphoma is a type of cancer that affects the lymphatic system, a key part of the immune system. There are numerous different types of lymphoma, but the majority of lymphomas are classified as non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
A:According to the Cancer Institute of New South Wales, stage 4 cancer is the most severe stage of cancer and indicates distant spread. At this stage, cancerous cells are able to travel the body via blood vessels, which enables them to spread to any body part.
A:Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a form of cancer that starts in the lymphocytes, which are cells of the lymphatic system. Lymphocytes exist in the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues and are part of the body’s immune system, according to the American Cancer Society.
A:The National Cancer Institute explains that Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer of the immune system. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells in the lymph nodes. Rare Hodgkin lymphoma is diagnosed by the presence of lymphocyte-predominant cells. It was formerly referred to as Hodgkin's disease.
A:The main signs and symptoms of lymphoma include painless swelling in lymph nodes found in the groin, neck or under the arms, night sweats, chills, fever, and unexplained weight loss, according to the Mayo Clinic. Other symptoms are appetite loss, increased lymph node pain after drinking and enhanced sensitivity to alcohol, constant fatigue, and itching.
A:According to the American Cancer Society, generalized signs and symptoms of cancer include unexplained weight loss, fever, fatigue, unexplained pain, skin changes, changes in bowel or bladder functions, wounds that do not heal, unusual bleeding and white patches inside the mouth. All of these signs and symptoms can point to a diagnosis of cancer if they are experienced for prolonged periods of time.
A:The prognosis for prostate cancer depends on how far the cancer has spread once the doctor detects the disease, according to WebMD. Doctors use one of four stages to describe how advanced prostate cancer has become in a patient. Stage I has the best prognosis, and Stage IV has the worst. Better prognoses depend on the location of prostate cancer.
A:Symptoms of prostate cancer include trouble urinating, decreased strength in the urine stream, blood in the urine or semen, general pain in the back and lower body, including the pelvic region, bone pain and erectile dysfunction, according to the Mayo Clinic. WebMD also lists the leaking of urine when laughing or coughing and the inability to urinate while standing up as additional symptoms.
A:According to the National Cancer Institute, during the final stages of lung cancer, a patient suffers myoclonus, dyspnea, fatigue, cough, rattle, delirium and fever. A study of 200 cancer patients revealed that noisy breathing, pain and urinary dysfunction were the most frequent symptoms during the last 48 hours of life.
A:According to The Scott Hamilton CARES Initiative, nutritious foods that are healthy for cancer patients to eat include fruits, vegetables, whole grains and foods rich in protein and omega 3 fatty acids. Low-fat dairy and alternative dairy foods are also good to eat. Beverages cancer patients may drink include water, tea, milk, coffee and 100 percent fruit juices.
A:Common symptoms of leukemia in children include fatigue or pale skin, infections and fever, easy bleeding or bruising, extreme weakness, shortness of breath, and coughing, according to WebMD. Other symptoms may include bone or joint pain, swelling in the abdomen, swelling above the collarbone, loss of appetite, weight loss, headaches, seizure, balance problems or abnormal vision.
A:The American Cancer Society notes that fatigue is a common side effect of radiation treatment. Fatigue is defined as feeling tired all the time, even after resting. A number of factors can lead to fatigue, including low red blood cell count, pain, poor nutrition, stress and chemotherapy drugs.
A:Cancer shows up on certain types of medical X-rays, making it an essential tool in detecting cancer, according to Cancer Research UK. X-ray radiation poses some health risks, but the potential diagnostic and preventive benefits typically outweigh the risks of the radiation.
A:The progression of prostate cancer is divided into four distinct stages; by the fourth stage the cancer will have spread to other parts of the body. In this final stage, the Gleason score can range from 2 to 10, and the cancer may have spread to nearby tissue such as the rectum, bladder or pelvic wall. It may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes, and often spreads to the bones.
A:A neurologist studies the nervous system, which is composed of the brain, the spinal cord and the peripheral nervous system. This includes any part of the body, such as the eyes, ears and skin, that receive information through the senses.
A:Mitosis is the process via which cells divide, producing copies of themselves. Cancer is essentially mitosis that is out of control. Cancer cells do not operate in the same way as other cells in the system they occupy, so they replicate and damage surrounding tissues.
A:Ovarian cancer triggers many abdominal symptoms, such as pain, bloating and upset stomach, the National Ovarian Cancer Coalition states. An individual may urinate more often, feel full quickly during meals, or struggle with fatigue and back soreness. Some sufferers experience pain during sex or changes in their menstrual cycles.
A:According to Mayo Clinic, a PET scan is an imaging test that helps determine how tissues and organs in the body are functioning. Short for positron emission topography, a PET scan uses a radioactive drug tracer to show areas of the body that have unusually high levels of chemical activity, which typically relates to a disease or disorder. These areas show up as bright spots on a PET scan.