As of 2014, the prognosis of the throat cancer depends on the stage and the location of the cancer in the throat. Throat cancer has four stages. In general, stage I specifies a smaller tumor while stage IV indicates the most advanced cancer. In 2010, the American Cancer Society states that a five-year survival rate ranged from 90 percent in stage I to 24 percent in stage IV.
As of 2014, there is no known cause of throat cancer. The American Cancer Society states the risk factors include tobacco and alcohol use, having the human papilloma virus and prolonged exposure to dust and paint fumes. The National Cancer Institute explains some of the symptoms include experiencing a hoarse voice for more than three weeks, having trouble swallowing for more than six weeks, a persistent cough that does not go away, having trouble breathing and a lump in the neck. The Mayo Clinic explains that throat cancer is diagnosed through tests that include X-rays, CT scans or an MRI. A doctor may also perform an endoscopy where a lighted scope is placed down an individual’s throat to look for any irregularities. If anything unusual is found, the doctor may then take a biopsy to collect tissues and send them to a laboratory for testing.