Depression, bipolar disorder and anxiety disorders are examples of mood disorders. Depression is characterized by feelings of hopelessness and sadness for days or weeks, bipolar disorder is a mood disorder involving periods of both depression and mania, and anxiety disorders are characterized by nervousness and fear, states Healthline.
Factors that cause mood disorders include chemical imbalances in the brain, life events and genetics, states Johns Hopkins Medicine. Symptoms of mood disorders include long-term sadness or feeling of emptiness, low self-esteem, feeling worthless, extreme guilt and loss of interest in activities. Other symptoms include decreased energy, irritability, suicidal thoughts, concentration issues and trouble sleeping or excessive sleeping.
The primary mood disorders have subcategories to them. Major depressive disorder and dysthymia are types of depression, and mania and depression can be part of bipolar disorder. Social anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder and generalized anxiety disorder are types of anxiety disorders. Other anxiety disorders include panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder, says Healthline.
Mood disorders are commonly treated using antidepressant and mood stabilizer medications. They are also treated using types of psychotherapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or interpersonal therapy. Family therapy is also used in treating mood disorders, notes Johns Hopkins Medicine.