End stage renal failure is a permanent condition in which the kidneys stop functioning well enough to support the body's needs, states the American Kidney Fund. This happens after chronic kidney disease, according to MedlinePlus. Patients with end stage renal failure need a kidney transplant or dialysis to survive.
Patients may reach end stage renal failure 10 to 20 years after diagnosis of a chronic kidney disease, as stated by Healthline. Common causes include diabetes and high blood pressure. Patients with kidney diseases such as lupus and polycystic kidney disease are also at risk. Symptoms of end stage renal failure include an inability to urinate, fatigue, nausea, unexplained weight loss and changes in skin color.