Elbow pain after weightlifting can be attributed to golfer's elbow, tendonitis or arthritis, according to WeightTraining.com. Pain in the front of the elbow is caused by excessive stress on the bicep muscle, while pain above the elbow is a result of overworking the triceps muscles.
Golfer's elbow is the most common reason weightlifters experience elbow pain, according to WeightTraining.com. The repeated up and down motion of lifting weights causes the forearm and triceps tendons to rub against the elbow causing pain. Tendonitis of the elbow is also common. Repeated pushing during weightlifting causes the radius bone of the forearm to rub against the triceps tendons. People who have been weightlifting for a long time can develop arthritis in the elbow that leads to inflammation and pain in the joint after lifting.