Since bleeding after menopause is abnormal, the symptom always requires assessment by a physician to determine the cause and prescribe an appropriate course of treatment, according to WebMD. Possible causes of postmenopausal bleeding include polyps, endometrial atrophy, cancer, endometrial dysplasia, infections and use of certain medications.
Doctors use several diagnostic tools to assess the cause of postmenopausal bleeding, reports WebMD. Imaging studies such as transvaginal ultrasound or sonogram are frequently performed to diagnose the condition. These procedures, along with biopsies, may be performed in a doctor's office. Another diagnostic technique, called dilation and curettage, involves removal of a piece of endometrial tissue for analysis.