The most common medications physicians prescribe for an enlarged heart include diuretics, ACE inhibitors, beta blockers, digoxin, anti-coagulants and anti-arrhythmics, according to Mayo Clinic. Angiotensin receptor blockers are administered for patients who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors and provide many of the same benefits.
Several of the medications commonly prescribed for an enlarged heart, including diuretics, ACE inhibitors and beta blockers, help reduce blood pressure, Mayo Clinic says. Beta blockers also improve heart function in general, as does digoxin. Anticoagulant medications reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke by decreasing the chance of blood clots, while anti-arrhythmic medications help keep the heart in a normal rhythm. The effectiveness of any of these medications depends, in part, on the cause of the enlarged heart. When an enlarged heart is the result of another treatable condition, treatment focuses on the causal condition.
When medications are not effective in treating an enlarged heart, surgery is necessary, which varies depending on the cause of the condition, according to Mayo Clinic. Surgery to implant a pacemaker, which coordinates the heartbeat, is used in cases of dilated cardiomyopathy. Heart valve surgery is needed when an enlarged heart is caused by a valve problem. In the worst case scenario, a heart transplant may be needed.