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What are some Down syndrome facts?

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Down syndrome is a condition that occurs when a person has an additional copy of chromosome 21, explains the National Down Syndrome Society. As of 2015, Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal condition. Individuals with Down syndrome are at higher risk for several medical disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, respiratory problems, congenital heart disease, childhood leukemia and hearing issues.

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Some common physical traits of people with Down syndrome include almond-shaped eyes with an upward slant, a flattened face, small ears, a short neck and a palmar crease or a line cross the palm, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Other physical features, such as a smaller-than-average stature, small white spots on the iris, poor muscle tone and a tongue that usually sticks out of an individual's mouth, are shared by many people with Downs syndrome. There are three types of Down syndrome: trisomy 21, translocation Down syndrome and mosaic Down syndrome. Around 95 percent of individuals with Down syndrome have trisomy 21.

Toddlers with Down syndrome experience cognitive delays, including learning how to talk, sit, walk and crawl, reports MedicineNet. Speech therapists, occupational therapists and physical therapists can provide care to help affected toddlers improve their social, motor and language skills.

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