A liver cyst is treated in one of four ways: aspiration, fenestration, liver resection or liver transplant, according to WebMD. The best option depends on the extent of the patient's pain and the location of the cysts.
If a cyst is blocking a bile duct or has become infected, aspiration may be recommended, notes WebMD. During this procedure, the physician uses a needle or catheter to drain the fluid in the cyst. Antibiotics are administered in the case of infection. Aspiration, however, only offers temporary relief as cysts often fill up with fluid again. Large cysts on the surface of the liver may require surgery to remove the wall of the cyst - a process called fenestration or deroofing.
Liver resection is a viable option when the majority of cysts are clustered in a particular area of the liver or there are a few large cysts, explains WebMD. This involves the surgical removal of part of the liver. However, it is not suitable for cases involving thousands of small cysts spread all over the organ. Liver transplant is a serious procedure reserved for people experiencing severe abdominal pain and deteriorating quality of life. Polycystic liver disease rarely leads to a transplant.