A doctor who treats cancer is called an oncologist, according to the American Society of Clinical Oncology. An oncologist may be a medical, surgical or radiation oncologist depending on the type of therapy used for cancer treatment.
An oncologist who treats cancer with chemotherapy (pharmacological interventions) is a medical oncologist, explains the American Society of Clinical Oncology. A surgical oncologist treats cancer by removing tumors or cancerous tissue through surgical interventions. A radiation oncologist treats cancer with high-energy particles, a therapy known as radiation therapy. An oncologist may specialize in treating certain cancers, or he may limit his practice to pediatric patients. Other medical personnel may be involved in caring for individuals with cancer, but they are not called oncologists. They are part of the oncology team.