Diseases of esophagus include gastroesophageal reflux disease, cancer and heartburn, according to MedlinePlus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease is the most common of all the esophageal diseases.
The esophagus is a tube between the mouth and the stomach through which substances such as food and saliva pass, notes MedlinePlus. Gastroesophageal reflux disease, or GERD, occurs as a result of incomplete closure of the muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. This improper closure of muscles results in the backward flow of food from the stomach into the esophagus, causing esophageal irritation. This eventually leads to esophageal damage. The treatment options for diseases of the esophagus depend on the condition and include dietary changes, over-the-counter medications and surgery.