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What are diseases on the emerging infectious diseases list?

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Diseases on the emerging infectious diseases list include anthrax, botulism, the plague, smallpox and tularemia, says the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Other emerging infectious diseases are viral hemorrhagic fevers such as arenavirus, bunyaviruses, flaviviruses such and dengue fever and filoviruses such as Ebola and Marburg.

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Anthrax is caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis, claims the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. It is largely a disease of livestock but can also infect humans. There are three types: cutaneous, inhalational and gastrointestinal, with cutaneous anthrax the most common form. This type of anthrax attacks the skin and causes ulceration and necrosis.

Botulism is caused by Clostridium botulinum, says Mayo Clinic. It can be a form of food poisoning, can cause dangerous infections in wounds and damage the intestinal tracts of infants. This last type of botulism is the most common and affects babies who are between 2 and 8 months old.

The plague is notorious for being the cause of the Black Death that decimated Europe in the Middle Ages, says MedlinePlus. It is caused by the Yersinia pestis bacteria and is delivered to humans by fleas who have already bitten infected rats. The three types of plague are bubonic, pneumonic and septicemic.

The deadly Ebola virus is spread through contact with contaminated body fluids, says the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It may also be spread through handling or eating bush meat.

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