Diseases that cause red hands include erythromelalgia, Raynaud's syndrome and Kawasaki disease, according to WebMD, the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and Mayo Clinic. In erythromelalgia, the hands also develop a burning sensation, states WebMD.
Erythromelalgia usually happens on both sides of the body, and the onset may be gradual or sudden, claims WebMD. Medical professionals do not know what causes erythromelalgia, but they suspect it has something to do with the blood vessels in the hands contracting and dilating in abnormal ways. The condition can be a primary condition or part of another disorder.
In Raynaud's syndrome, the hands or other extremities turn colors in response to cold or stress, says Mayo Clinic. The hands may turn white at first, then turn blue, then turn red. They also throb, swell and tingle. As with erythromelalgia, doctors don't know what causes Raynaud's syndrome, but they believe that the blood vessels react in abnormal ways when the person is exposed to stress or cold temperatures.
Kawasaki disease can also lead to redness on the palms of the hands and other areas of the body, says the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Kawasaki disease affects children of all ages and has no known cause, as of 2015. It is not contagious.