Main types of lung disease include lung tissue diseases, lung airway diseases and lung circulation diseases, according to MedlinePlus. They mostly occur as a result of smoking, genetics and infections, says WebMD.
Lung tissue diseases are a group of lung diseases that hinder the normal functioning of the lungs by attacking the lung tissue structure; they occur as a result of swelling or scarring, notes MedlinePlus. The swollen or scarred tissue restricts the lungs from expanding to their full capacity, preventing deep breathing. This hinders oxygen intake and carbon dioxide expulsion. Lung tissue diseases include sarcoidosis and pulmonary fibrosis.
Airway diseases are lung diseases that narrow or block the gaseous tubes, which are the channels through which the air enters and leaves the lungs, explains MedlinePlus. Examples of airway lung diseases include chronic bronchitis, asthma, bronchiectasis and emphysema. Chronic obstruction pulmonary disease, acute bronchitis and cystic fibrosis are other airway diseases, states WebMD.
Lung circulation diseases hinder gaseous exchange by affecting the lung's blood vessels, and occur as a result of swelling, clotting or scarring of the vessels, states MedlinePlus. Two examples of lung circulation diseases are pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension, claims WebMD. While both result in shortness of breath, pulmonary embolism causes low oxygen levels, and pulmonary hypertension causes chest pain.