Some types of heart surgery include coronary artery bypass grafting, transmyocardial laser revascularization and heart valve replacement, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Coronary artery bypass grafting is the most commonly performed heart surgery.
Surgeons bypass the coronary artery to treat severe coronary heart disease by grafting a healthy vein to the affected artery, states the NHLBI. Transmyocardial laser revascularization is performed when angina fails to respond to other forms of treatment. A heart valve replacement treats defective mitral or pulmonary valve leaflets in the heart that reduce effective blood flow, which are either congenital or due to disease.