Types of bone diseases include osteomalacia and osteoporosis, states Mayo Clinic. Paget’s disease and osteomyelitis are two other types of bone diseases, reports Healthline. Bones consist of living cells, collagen and minerals such as phosphorous and calcium. Bones constantly break down, and new bone replaces them, according to Everyday Health.
Osteomalacia is softening of the bones, which causes achy bone pain and muscle weakening, reports Mayo Clinic. Osteomalacia occurs from vitamin D deficiency and can develop in people who cover themselves while outside, wear strong sunscreen or spend little time in sunlight. Other causes include celiac disease, liver disorders and drugs such as phenytoin and phenobarbital.
Osteoporosis occurs mainly in the hips, wrists and spine, making bones become so weak that stress from actions such as coughing can cause a fracture, notes Mayo Clinic. This condition is more prevalent in older women, and treatment includes medications, weight-bearing exercises and eating healthy diet.
Paget’s disease is characterized by an abnormal breakdown of bones and the formation of new weak, enlarged and deformed bones, explains Healthline. As of 2015, the cause of this condition is unknown, but symptoms include bone pain, joint stiffness and hearing loss.
Osteomyelitis is a fungal or bacterial infection that can cause permanent bone damage if not treated, says Healthline. Typical signs include fever, redness and swelling in the affected area. Risk factors include smoking, sickle cell disease, diabetes and treatments for kidney conditions.