Different tooth diseases include anodontia, hypodontia, dental caries and dental abscesses, according to the National Organization for Rare Disorders, the National Institutes of Health, MedlinePlus and WebMD. Anodontia is a rare disorder where a person never develops teeth, says the National Organization for Rare Disorders. It is extremely unusual in people who don't have other abnormalities such as problems with their hair, sweat glands or nails.
Hypodontia is a disorder where the person is missing some of his teeth, says the National Institutes of Health. Like anodontia, hypodontia is a hereditary disorder, but it is surprisingly common. It happens during fetal development. People who are missing teeth often have trouble chewing and pronouncing words correctly. The absence of teeth is also unsightly.
Dental caries or cavities are also very common and occur when bacteria in the mouth convert carbohydrates on the teeth into acid, says MedlinePlus. The bacteria, sugars and bits of food form a film called plaque on the surface of the tooth, and if it is not brushed away, it causes holes to form in the teeth.
Dental abscesses occur when the root of the tooth becomes infected, says WebMD. It also occurs when an infection sets up between the gum and the tooth. The patient experiences pain when chewing, and his teeth are sensitive to temperature.