Scurvy is caused by a deficiency of vitamin C, and during long voyages, sailors did not have access to fresh foods containing this vitamin. The term "limeys," often used to describe the British, originates from the Royal Navy and Merchant Navy's daily ration of limes for all sailors.
Scurvy represents itself with anemia, weakness, skin hemorrhages and, most famously, gingivitis or gum disease. The first sign of scurvy is usually small bruises on the skin called perifollicular hyperkeratotic papules, which are often found on the shins. Anemia occurs in about 75 percent of all patients with scurvy due to the lack of blood available to the tissues and the inability of the body to absorb iron. Gingivitis causes the gums to become red and swollen. Other symptoms include bleeding in the joints, which causes swelling and can prevent sufferers from being able to walk.
Vitamin C is essential to the formation of collagen. Collagen is essential for blood vessels and tissue throughout the human body. Vitamin C also helps support the immune system and the metabolism of cholesterol. The treatment for scurvy consists of vitamin C supplements and the only permanent danger is the possible loss of teeth through gum disease. By eating five portions of fruit and vegetables a day, a person should easily get their 30 to 60 milligrams recommended daily intake of vitamin C, according to DermNet NZ.