The normal range for results on a bone density test is -1 and higher, according to Mayo Clinic. A patient's result, or T-score, compares bone density to typical values for healthy adults of the same sex. The test measures the amounts of calcium and other bone minerals present.
If bone density test results are between -1 and -2.5, the patient probably has osteopenia, states Mayo Clinic. This means that bones are weakening and breaks are more likely than in people with normal bone density, explains MedicineNet. However, osteopenia is not as severe as osteoporosis. In this condition, bones are very porous and easily compressed. Osteoporosis is indicated by bone density scores of -2.5 and below, Mayo Clinic explains.