Blood and bone marrow stem cell transplants may cure aplastic anemia, states the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. In cases where aplastic anemia results from exposure to a toxin, removing the toxin may resolve the condition.
Other treatments include blood transfusions and medications, according to the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Aplastic anemia occurs when bone marrow does not produce enough stem cells due to damage. These stem cells develop into the different types of blood cells, including red blood cells, which deliver oxygen to other cells of the body. Mild to moderate cases may not need treatment, but severe cases may result in death and require emergency care.