Conditions such as cancer and diabetes; use of tobacco and alcohol; increase in hormones due to pregnancy, menstruation, menopause and oral birth control pills; and mouth ulcers, gum disease, gingivitis and canker sores can cause sore gums, states HowStuffWorks. Good oral hygiene is important in avoiding gum complications.
Mouth ulcers, gum disease, gingivitis and canker sores expose nerves and lead to loose teeth and gums, thus resulting in bleeding, swelling and soreness of the gums, states HowStuffWorks. Gingivitis, which is due to bacteria and tartar build-up, destroys gum tissues. Biting and burning of the inside parts of cheeks by eating certain foods can cause sores in the gums.
Menstruation, pregnancy, menopause, oral birth control pills and puberty trigger the flow of blood to the gums due to increased levels of hormones, which result in bone loss and dry mouth, thus causing sore gums, states HowStuffWorks. Diseases such as cancer and diabetes, and side effects resulting from their treatment can cause sore gums, loss of bone density and dry mouth.
Alcohol and tobacco products such as cigarettes contain nicotine, which is responsible for causing oral cancer, and improper fixing of dentures can damage tissues and cause gum disease, notes HowStuffWorks. Loose or shifting gums and teeth may lead to depositing of dirt in the gums, leading to decay and soreness of the gums. Individuals should avoid stress, which may possibly lead to neglect of the oral care.