Prostate disorders that damage the prostate's cellular structure lead to elevated prostate-specific antigen, or PSA, levels, according to MedicineNet. These disorders include prostate cancer, benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostatitis. Prostate manipulations that involve ejaculation, catheter placement, urine retention and prostate examination can also raise PSA levels in the blood.
Secreted by the prostate gland, PSA liquefies semen during ejaculation, as MedicineNet explains. It is otherwise known as human kallikrein 3. During its secretion, this substance is eliminated from the body through the semen. However, traces of it creep into the blood, which leads to a small quantity of it that remains in the blood. Because they test for such a minuscule presence in the blood, the tests for PSA levels use a sophisticated technology known as monoclonal antibody technique, which is capable of detecting small amounts of PSA.
The normal concentration range for prostate-specific antigen in the blood is between 1 and 4 nanograms per milliliter, according to MedicineNet. Older women and young men are likely to have lower levels of PSA concentration due to the size increase in the prostate gland, which leads to higher production of the antigen in older men. Hereditary prostate cancer may also affect PSA levels in the blood.