Exposure to cold causes chills and shivering without fever, explains Healthline. The muscles rapidly expand and contract when exposed to a cold environment in order to warm up, a process caused shivering. This causes a person to feel chills. However, people often associate chills with infections and an increase in body temperature.
An individual experiencing chills without a fever needs to stay warm, limit cold exposure and drink plenty of water, advises Healthline. Otherwise, medical intervention isn't necessary. However, if the chills accompany a fever, it can be a sign of viral or bacterial infections, influenza, pneumonia and other health conditions that need attention from a medical professional.
Chills from cold exposure occur often if the individual goes out in cold or wet weather without proper protective clothing, reports WebMD. Depending on the severity of the temperatures and length of exposure to cold weather, cold exposure can cause more than just chills, resulting in frostnip, frostbite, hypothermia and cold injuries. While frostnip temporarily numbs the skin, turning it a pale white or blue color, it can eventually develop into frostbite, in which skin becomes damaged. Damaged skin can result in cold injuries such as trench foot, where the skin blackens and blisters. Hypothermia causes the loss of body heat, proceeding from shivering and chills to mental and physical incapacitation and eventually death.