Thyroid cancer and goiter are both major causes of thyroid problems and coughing, states WebMD and Healthline. Grave's disease (also known as Basedow's disease) is an autoimmune disease that leads to goiter if left untreated.
Thyroid cancer occurs when abnormal cells begin to form in the thyroid gland. The cause of the disease is still unknown, but changes in a person's DNA seem to play a role. Symptoms, besides a continuous cough, include a lump or swelling in the neck, pain in the neck and ears, difficulty swallowing, difficulty breathing or constant wheezing, and hoarseness in the voice. Thyroid cancer is often found before the cancerous cells spread to the rest of the body, so many patients do very well after diagnosis, according to WebMD.
Grave's disease is an autoimmune dysfunction, in which the thyroid gland produces too much thyroid hormone, a condition known as hyperthyroidism. Grave's disease causes a variety of problems, such as heat intolerance, weight loss, chest pain, muscle weakness and goiter, says EndocrineWeb.
Goiter is a noncancerous enlargement of the thyroid gland that is usually the result of an iodine-deficient diet. Symptoms of goiter include coughing, swelling or tightness in the neck, and hoarseness of the voice, explains Healthline.