Common urological problems include urinary tract infections, benign prostatic hyperplasia, incontinence and kidney stones, according to Healthline. Benign prostatic hyperplasia affects men, while urinary tract infections, incontinence and kidney stones occur in both men and women.
Urinary tract infections, or UTIs, develop as a result of bacteria, yeast or viruses entering the urinary tract and causing infections, explains Healthline. They occur more frequently in women than in men. Symptoms include painful urination and an urge to urinate frequently. Treatment with antibiotics resolves UTIs within several days.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia, or BPH, is an enlargement of the prostate that puts pressure on the urethra, the tube through which urine exits the body, notes Healthline. Common in older men, symptoms include urinary frequency and weak urine stream. In some cases, treatment isn't necessary; in other cases, alpha blockers or surgery rectify the situation.
Incontinence is the inability to control the bladder, and it has numerous causes, states Healthline. Pregnancy and childbirth, diabetes, enlarged prostate, UTIs and diseases such as Parkinson's and multiple sclerosis are a few possible causes of incontinence. Limiting fluid intake may help control incontinence, but surgery may provide a solution in some cases.
Crystals in the urine can develop into stones in the kidneys, according to Healthline. As they move out of the kidneys into the ureters, they cause excruciating pain and potentially block urine flow. Some people pass these stones without assistance, but doctors must surgically remove others. Shock wave lithotripsy, in which sound waves work to break up the stones so that they pass from the body more easily, is a common treatment for kidney stones.