Some common tests that require lab analysis are blood tests, urinalysis, cerebrospinal fluid, genetic material and biopsies, as noted by Merck Manual. To help in the diagnosis of conditions, two basic types of tests that doctors can request are blood and urine examinations. Lab analysis of a blood sample can be useful for different types of blood tests, such as complete blood count, blood chemistry test, blood culture and a blood enzyme test.
A complete blood count can include testing blood components, such as white and red blood cells, platelets and hemoglobin. These are important tests because they can detect many abnormalities. If platelet levels are not normal, it can be a sign of a blood clotting issue, as noted by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Similarly, hemoglobin levels that are too low can be an indication of a blood disorder, such as anemia. A blood chemistry test or basic metabolic panel requires a lab analysis of the different chemicals in a blood sample.
Checking urine samples in a lab is called a urinalysis. This examination includes a microscopic view of a urine sample to detect the presence of blood, proteins or any other chemicals, as stated by Main Line Health.
Doctors can also request the examination of a tissue sample removed for a biopsy. The examination of tissues is performed with a microscope to detect abnormal cells that are caused by a disease, such as cancer. Some possible tests that a lab may perform are on a Pap smear and genetic material.