Some common symptoms of colon inflammation are diarrhea, bloating and abdominal pain, according to MedicineNet. There may or may not be blood in the stool, and the patient may not have a fever. However, if there is blood in the stool, the patient needs to seek medical attention.
Inflammation of the colon can have several causes, says MedicineNet. They include inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, or a bacterial or viral infection, an interruption of the blood supply to the colon, and microscopic colitis.
Microscopic colitis causes an intermittent watery diarrhea and gets its name because the inflammation can only be diagnosed when the colon tissue is examined under a microscope, claims Mayo Clinic. The two types of microscopic colitis are collagenous and lymphocytic. In the first instance, the colon tissue is clogged with a layer of collagen, a type of protein. In the second instance, white blood cells invade the tissue of the colon.
The colon can also be inflamed due to radiation treatments given to cancer patients, explains MedicineNet. Radiation colitis, and all the others except microscopic colitis, can be observed during a colonoscopy. The lining of the colon becomes swollen, red, ulcerous and bleeds even when it is gently rubbed.