Common symptoms of chronic kidney disease include nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, weakness and fatigue, explains Mayo Clinic. Other symptoms include problems sleeping, changes in urine output, swelling of the feet and ankles, hiccups and itching.
Chronic kidney disease is a progressive condition marked by a gradual decline in kidney function and a buildup of waste products in the blood that are normally excreted in the urine, according to Mayo Clinic. Medical conditions that can cause chronic kidney disease include diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, interstitial nephritis and polycystic kidney disease. Other causes include prolonged urinary tract obstruction and recurrent kidney infections.
Chronic kidney disease can cause complications that include fluid retention in the arms, legs and lungs; elevated blood potassium levels; heart and blood vessel disease; bone weakness; and anemia, notes Mayo Clinic. Other complications include impotence, central nervous system dysfunction and pericarditis. The treatment of chronic kidney disease is aimed at reducing the rate of disease progression and the management of symptoms and complications. Hypertension is treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and diuretics. Elevated cholesterol levels are treated with statins.
Chronic kidney disease may progress to end-stage renal failure, states Mayo Clinic. During this stage, the kidneys are no longer able to get rid of waste products and excess fluid. The treatment of end-stage renal failure includes dialysis or a kidney transplant.