Some common medical specialties for doctors include internal medicine, pediatrics, orthopedics and obstetrics, according to the American Medical Association. Other common specialties are plastic surgery, emergency, psychiatry and surgery.
Internal medicine involves the diagnosis and treatment of diseases that affect the organs, including the kidneys, heart and liver, notes the American Medical Association. Internal medicine also includes treatment of cancer, infections, and blood, digestive or joint conditions. Obstetrics and gynecology are within the same medical specialty, though some doctors specialize in standard gynecology, while others specialize in pregnancy and childbirth. The obstetrics specialty includes caring for women who are pregnant or plan to become pregnant, gynecological care, reproductive care, and care during the menopausal and post-menopausal stages.
Orthopedic surgeons specialize in not only surgery, but also a special area of surgery, says the American Medical Association. This specialty is for doctors interested in preserving or restoring the spine and musculoskeletal system, including the elbows, hips, knees, shoulders, hands and feet. They deal with degenerative diseases, infections, sprains and breaks, and other conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system.
Doctors who specialize in pediatrics provide preventative and medical care for children and teens. This includes emotional and behavioral assessments, treating conditions in children and teens, and caring for infants, notes the American Medical Association.