Some of the most common medical problems are obesity, diabetes, cancer and arthritis, as of 2015. Other common health problems are heart disease and stroke, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Chronic conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, arthritis and cancer, are some of the most expensive and preventable health problems. Arthritis is the No. 1 cause of disability, adds the CDC. Diabetes is the most common culprit when it comes to kidney failure and new cases of adult blindness.
Four health risk behaviors that contribute to these medical conditions are lack of exercise, poor nutrition, smoking tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, as stated by the CDC. If individuals change these behaviors, they may prevent the development of these health conditions.
Dietary changes, exercise, behavior changes and prescription weight-loss medications prevent or treat obesity. Dietary changes include reducing calories and consuming more nutrient-rich food, as recommended by Mayo Clinic. Nutrient-rich foods include fruits, vegetables and other plant-based foods, such as whole-grain carbohydrates. Choosing lean sources of protein, such as beans, lentils and soy, is also helpful. Eliminating or limiting drinks with sugar in them is another good dietary change to make. Fad diets are not usually effective, providing only short-term results.