What Are Some Common Medical Laboratory Tests?

Complete blood counts, liver function tests and urinalysis are common medical laboratory tests, states Middlesex Hospital. Doctors use these tests as part of regular checkups and to diagnose conditions or set benchmarks for comparison to future test results.

Doctors conduct complete blood counts to measure factors related to white and red blood cells and platelets, states WebMD. A high white blood cell count may indicate an infection, while a high red blood cell count may signal that the cells are blocking the capillaries, preventing the cells from carrying oxygen properly. A patient with too many platelets in his blood is at risk of developing clotting in the veins, while a patient with too few platelets may suffer from uncontrolled bleeding.

Doctors use liver function tests to measure enzymes and protein in the blood and to diagnose and treat liver disease or liver damage, states Mayo Clinic. Liver function tests measures how well the liver is creating protein and clearing the blood of the waste product bilirubin. Not all people with abnormal liver function tests are suffering from liver disease.

Urinalysis is a common medical test in which doctors test samples of urine to detect conditions such as diabetes, urinary tract infections and kidney disease, according to Mayo Clinic. Doctors use urinalysis to study the appearance of urine and to measure its content and concentration.