One common example of an abbreviation commonly used by doctors and nurses is the ABG, or arterial blood gas test, which is used to determine if a patient has a lung disease, according to MedlinePlus. Another common laboratory test is for ALP, or alkaline phosphatase, which is used to identify bone or liver disease.
An abbreviation that a doctor may write on a prescription is BID, indicating that a medication should be taken twice per day. A BUN, or blood urea nitrogen test, is conducted to help diagnose problems related to kidney disease.
Laboratory test results from the doctor are often associated with a number that indicates what level of a given molecule or substance has been found in a patient's body and whether or not this falls into a normal, healthy range for the individual receiving the test, according to WebMD. These results are sometimes provided as either a positive or a negative to indicate the presence or absence of something that is directly related to a particular disease or pathology. Laboratory tests are usually conducted using samples of blood, urine, saliva or mucus.