Indicators of a traumatic brain injury include losing consciousness, disorientation, headaches, trouble sleeping and nausea. Excessive sleepiness, fatigue, vomiting and loss of balance also indicate a traumatic brain injury. Other indicators include blurred vision, ringing noise in the ears and changes in sense of smell. Additional symptoms of a traumatic brain injury include light sensitivity, sound sensitivity, loss of concentration, mood swings and anxiety, according to Mayo Clinic.
Convulsions, unusual pupil dilation, numbness of fingers and toes and loss of concentration indicate a moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. Other symptoms include confusion, agitation, slurred speech and coma. Signs of a traumatic brain injury in children include mood changes, irritability, inability to pay attention and persistent crying, reports Mayo Clinic.
Causes of a traumatic brain injury include falls, violence such as child abuse and gunshot wounds, injuries from sporting activities and explosive blasts. Penetrating wounds also cause traumatic brain injuries. Shaken baby syndrome is a type of traumatic brain injury. It results from brain cell damage that occurs due to violently shaking a baby, explains Mayo Clinic.
Effects of a traumatic brain injury can be either permanent or temporary. Some of these injuries increase the chances of developing Alzheimer’s. Another symptom is the failure to recall new information, according to the Alzheimer’s Association.