Most cases of benign eye floaters require no medical treatment, but if the density and number affect vision, vitrectomy is a possible solution, notes WebMD. For simple floaters, the patient can move his eyes up and down, shifting the eye fluid to move floaters out of the field of vision.
Vitrectomy involves removing the vitreous, which is the fluid around the eye, along with the floaters, and replacing it with a saline solution, explains WebMD. This procedure has possible complications, such as tearing or detachment of the retina, as well as the formation of cataracts. These are rare, but can lead to permanent damage to the vision, which is why the majority of surgeons require the floaters to cause a significant visual handicap before performing it.
Most floaters are actually small fragments of collagen, states WebMD. As part of the aging process, the vitreous and its collagen fibers contract and turn into shreds, and as they break off, they float inside the vitreous gel. Other causes of floaters include injury or disease in the eye, as well as crystalline deposits. In rare cases, lymphoma and other tumors in the eye also cause floaters. Because of the possibly severe underlying conditions, medical attention is necessary, even though most cases end up with no formal treatment.