What Are Some Common Eye Diseases?


Quick Answer

Common eye diseases include acute red eye, cataracts, glaucoma, Graves disease and macular degeneration. Certain diseases, such as glaucoma and cataracts, appear as a patient ages and can lead to blindness if not treated in time.

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Cataracts is a common eye disease where the clear lens of the eye becomes gradually clouded. This causes vision to become blurry or hazy and increases the eye's sensitivity to light. As of 2015, cataracts can be treated by replacing a damaged lens with an artificial lens. Glaucoma is more likely to occur if there is a family history with the disease. If left untreated, glaucoma can result in permanent blindness.

Macular degeneration occurs when the macula, which is part of the retina, is damaged. Macular degeneration affects central vision, causing vision to become distorted. Because this condition often develops in later years, it is called age-related macular degeneration, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Another retinal problem is diabetic retinopathy in which the retinal blood vessels are affected by diabetes. A detached retina can cause symptoms, such as floaters, blurry or distorted vision.

Some eye problems that affect the cornea are corneal ulcers and keratoconus. A corneal ulcer can develop either through an infection or an injury, while keratoconus occurs when the shape of the cornea changes to a cone shape, states All About Vision.

Glaucoma occurs when the fluid pressure in the eye becomes elevated, which can lead to optic nerve damage.

Conjunctivitis and ocular herpes are diseases that can also affect the eyes. Conjunctivitis is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection, while ocular herpes is a viral infection. Strabismus is a condition that can be congenital in which the eyes are misaligned, causing the eyes to cross either inward or outward.

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