Some common eye diseases are cataracts, glaucoma, retinal disorders, conjunctivitis, ocular herpes and strabismus. Eye diseases can affect different parts of the eye, including the retina, cornea, uvea, iris, lens and the optic nerve. Some eye disorders that affect the retina are macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and a retinal detachment, notes Healthline.
Macular degeneration occurs when the macula, which is part of the retina, is damaged. Macular degeneration affects central vision, causing vision to become distorted. Because this condition often develops in later years, it is called age-related macular degeneration, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Another retinal problem is diabetic retinopathy in which the retinal blood vessels are affected by diabetes. A detached retina can cause symptoms, such as floaters, blurry or distorted vision.
Some eye problems that affect the cornea are corneal ulcers and keratoconus. A corneal ulcer can develop either through an infection or an injury, while keratoconus occurs when the shape of the cornea changes to a cone shape, states All About Vision.
Other common eye diseases are glaucoma and cataracts. Glaucoma occurs when the fluid pressure in the eye becomes elevated, which can lead to optic nerve damage. A cataract is a condition in which the eye lens becomes cloudy. Through cataract surgery, the damaged lens is removed and replaced with an artificial one.
Conjunctivitis and ocular herpes are diseases that can also affect the eyes. Conjunctivitis is caused by either a viral or bacterial infection, while ocular herpes is a viral infection. Strabismus is a condition that can be congenital in which the eyes are misaligned, causing the eyes to cross either inward or outward.