Common causes of swollen gums and a sore throat include strep throat, viral pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis and the common cold, according to WebMD. Additional causes of these symptoms are acute sinusitis, mononucleosis, throat cancer, indoor allergens and mumps.
Caused by a bacterial infection, undiagnosed strep throat can potentially lead to complications such as rheumatic fever and inflammation of the kidneys, reports Mayo Clinic. Rheumatic fever causes issues such as a rash, painful joints, and in some cases, damage to the valves of the heart. Viral pharyngitis is the leading cause of sore throats, and results in inflammation of the pharynx, explains MedlinePlus. Symptoms of viral pharyngitis include fever, joint pain, discomfort when swallowing and tender swollen lymph nodes in the neck area.
Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils, which are found at the back of the throat, states Mayo Clinic. Symptoms associated with tonsillitis include difficulty swallowing, swollen tonsils and tender lymph nodes. This condition may be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, making prompt diagnosis important for appropriate treatment. Laryngitis is a condition that causes swelling and inflammation of the voice box or larynx, according to MedlinePlus. While the most common cause is a viral infection, laryngitis is also caused by allergies, bacterial infection, injury, gastroesophageal reflux disease and pneumonia.