Common causes of painful finger joints include arthritis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, according to MedicineNet. Diseases such as diabetes and injury or trauma, including bone fractures, dislocations and bruises, also commonly cause joint pain in the fingers. In very rare cases, tumors in the finger structures cause joint pain.
Redness, swelling or warmth of the joints can accompany finger bone pain, notes MedicineNet. Diabetes can cause nerve damage and lead to a condition known as peripheral neuropathy, which can produce finger pain. Skin or other finger tissue infections are a less common cause of finger pain. Symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome begin with tingling and numbness in the hand, although some patients experience burning or cramping in the fingers as it progresses.