Common causes of numb fingers include trauma, frostbite, toxin exposure and medical conditions such as diabetic nerve damage, multiple sclerosis and pernicious anemia, according to Healthline. Numb fingers occur when the blood supply to the nerves is damaged or limited, which can cause permanent nerve damage over time.
Diabetic nerve damage develops in people with diabetes and may affect any part of the body, explains the National Institute of Diabetes and Kidney Diseases. Causes of the condition include prolonged high blood glucose levels, other metabolic factors, autoimmune factors, mechanical injury to nerves and smoking. Patients with diabetic nerve damage experience numbness, tingling or pain in affected areas.
Multiple sclerosis is a disease that occurs when the immune system attacks the myelin in the central nervous system, according to Cleveland Clinic. Symptoms of multiple sclerosis include sensory symptoms, such as dizziness and tingling, as well as motor symptoms, such as stiffness and tremor.
Pernicious anemia occurs when the bowels do not properly absorb vitamin B-12, leading to a lack of healthy red blood cells, notes MedlinePlus. Symptoms of pernicious anemia include pale skin, constipation and a loss of appetite. Over time, the condition can lead to nerve damage, causing symptoms such as depression and confusion.