Causes of hematuria include kidney infections, urinary tract infections, kidney stones and cancer, according to Mayo Clinic. Men with enlarged prostates may also notice blood in their urine. Patients may suffer from hematuria after taking certain medications or after an intense workout.
Microscopic blood in urine is a sign of urinary tract infections and indicates that bacteria has entered the body through the urethra and multiplied in the bladder, explains Mayo Clinic. Kidney infections also cause hematuria alongside other symptoms, such as flank pain.
Bladder and kidney stones cause irritation of the kidney or bladder, leading to microscopic or gross hematuria, states MedicineNet. Kidney diseases, such as glomerulonephritis, which is inflammation of the kidneys' filtering units, also causes blood in the urine, explains Drugs.com.
One of the signs of advanced prostate, kidney or bladder cancer is blood in urine, according to Mayo Clinic. An enlarged or infected prostate may also result in hematuria. Inherited disorders, such as sickle cell anemia and Alport, sometimes cause blood in urine.
Cytoxan, which is an anticancer drug, and penicillin may cause hematuria, reports Mayo Clinic. Trauma to the kidney or urinary tract as a result of an accident or during sports causes visible urinary bleeding, notes Drugs.com. Some patients experience hematuria after strenuous exercises, though this is more common in males than in females.